Jump to Navigation

Toxic Substances on the Property

Toxic substances may include numerous things, including some you may not think of as particularly hazardous or some that were not regarded as dangerous when they were used. Examples include such common products as asbestos shingles or insulation, lead-based paint, mold and fluids drained from motor vehicles. If you were exposed to a toxic substance while visiting the property of another, call today to schedule a consultation with an attorney to discuss your legal options.


In most states, if you are selling or leasing residential real estate, you must disclose the existence of known hazardous substances on the property. Federal law requires the disclosure of lead hazards, such as lead plumbing or lead-based paint. State or local laws may require disclosure of other dangerous substances, such as asbestos.

Penalties for failure to disclose vary, but are often substantial. Failure to disclose the known presence of a lead hazard, for example, may subject a seller to a civil penalty of triple the amount of damages suffered by the buyer.


The common law in many states provides that a person who stores a hazardous or toxic substance on his or her property is strictly liable for damage caused by the release of that substance, even if mistaken or unintentional. This rule applies to property owners who intentionally store or accumulate toxic materials, regardless of how careful the owners were in storing the substance.

Federal and state laws provide that a property owner or a person in possession of property, such as a tenant, may be liable for the costs of cleaning up hazardous waste disposed of on the property. The landowner may be held liable for all of the costs of the cleanup, even if he or she was not responsible for all of the waste disposed of on the site. A former owner or occupant of property may also be held liable even though he or she no longer owns or is in possession of the property.

Federal and state laws may define "hazardous waste" differently. In some states, used oil drained from a motor vehicle crankcase is considered hazardous waste, so a property owner could be liable if he or she disposed of small amounts of used oil by dumping it on the ground. State and federal environmental agencies publish lists of substances officially regarded as hazardous waste and those lists tell a property owner or occupant if he or she may be potentially liable for hazardous wastes on the property.

Lead paint

A landlord has a duty to fix hazards from lead paint if a statute, city health department or the common law mandates that he or she do so. Under the common law, a claim against a landlord for lead paint liability is based upon negligence. A landlord cannot be liable for lead paint injuries to a tenant unless the landlord had knowledge or notice of the presence of lead-based paint and there was actually lead paint in the space. If the landlord does not have control over the area where lead-based paint is found, he or she has no duty to fix the problem.

Talk to a premises liability lawyer

The potential liability for harm from toxic substances on property is immense. Call today to schedule a consultation with an attorney who can explain how the law of toxic substances applies in your case.

Copyright 2014 FindLaw, a Thomson Reuters business

DISCLAIMER: This site and any information contained herein are intended for informational purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. Seek competent legal counsel for advice on any legal matter.

Our Practice Areas

Contact Us Today

NOTE: Labels in bold are required.

Contact Information
  1. disclaimer.

Information Centers

Roxanne Conlin
& Associates, P.C.

319 Seventh Street, Suite 600
Des Moines, Iowa 50309

515-283-1111 fax 515-282-0477
Email Us | Map & Directions